The hypothesis of the structure of matter


09/01/2012

Abstract

The proposed hypothesis of the structure of matter predicts new physical effects of experimentally testable and allows to visualize the quantum objects such as for example the elementary particles in terms of classical physics, which is now impossible. And one of the reasons for this is that, along with the properties of the particles and these particles exhibit wave-like properties. While the wave properties are the properties of the environment consisting of a large number of particles and therefore can not belong to a single particle. The exception are only electromagnetic waves, which are carriers of the photons, as is now believed, can propagate in the absence of protection.

"The smallest particles of matter may be engaged by a strong attraction, accounting for the large particles, but weaker. Many of them can also engage and be still larger particles with an even weaker force - and so in a number of sequences that will not end until progression of the largest particles from which depend on the chemical action and colors of natural bodies, with the clutch of such particles composed of the body of appreciable size ... So, naturally, there are agents capable of compressing together the particles of bodies is very strong attraction. Duty experimental philosophy to find them. " [1]

Newton

The basic idea of the structure of matter is, we observed that the matter is the spontaneous appearance of order in the chaotic motion of matter prachastits only as the result of collisions. These particles are similar to the "atoms" of the ancient Greek atomists, but are the smallest particles of matter, from the physical point of view can not be point, but should be a solid body having a shape and volume. Unlike other physical objects, which are not absolutely solid bodies. So even hadrons are composed of quarks, which are within the hadron, exchanging gluons can move relatively freely.

These pratela may not be completely solid, as in the case of a collision will be blocked only by the elastic and the appearance of some of their movement in order to be unlikely, as is the case for an ideal gas atoms. But if these praveschestvo pratel has properties similar liquids will pratel spherical shape. And along with the elastic and inelastic collisions are possible, leading to a merger pratel. Subsequent collision fused pratel can lead both to further their coalescence and break up into their constituent pratela and can be elastic, and depending on the conditions and the properties of the collision prazhidkosti pratel. In general, the clashes between the movement of bodies consisting of various numbers of fused pratel will be of uniform translational motion of the center of mass with simultaneous rotation about an axis passing through the center of inertia. This movement is the only phone that do not require the application of force to maintain constant speed. While the movement of other physical objects always happens in an environment that would resist any change in motion relative to the environment. So even in the more space we observed concentration of elementary particles having a rest mass of a few units per cubic centimeter, while the concentration of photons, called the cosmic background radiation, and neutrinos with antineutrinos of all types is a few hundred. [2] Thus, the conditions which would be carried out in Newton’s first law on preservation of uniform motion without action forces have yet been found. In the second law of classical mechanics do not take into account the finite velocity of propagation of interactions. Consider the problem of the motion of two identical spherical bodies, between which the force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, taking into account the finite velocity of propagation of interactions. According to classical mechanics, these bodies can move in a circle, lying diametrically opposite to it. The force acting on each body toward the center of the circle. Allowance for the finite speed of propagation of interactions leads to the fact that the field formed by each of the bodies reach another not at the same time, and with a time lag required to achieve these fields other body. During this period each of the bodies will be some distance by changing its position on the circle, but then the force acting on each body, is not directed by the diameter and the chord. This force can be decomposed into two components, one of which is directed towards the center of the circle, and the other at a tangent to it, and its direction coincides with the velocity of the body. But then, according to the laws of classical mechanics, the velocities should increase as a result of the body should fly apart. The good correspondence of bodies the laws of classical mechanics, in particular the law of gravity, due to the fact that they lack of consideration of the medium resistance and the finite speed of propagation of interactions cancel each other out.

Of course, the collisions of bodies must take place in accordance with the basic laws of physics, the laws of conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum. The apparent failure to comply with the law of conservation of energy in an inelastic collision pratel due to the fact that in such a collision pratel of the kinetic energy into potential energy of the pratel with each other. Since unlike the conventional liquid droplets, which can only merge if their mixing liquids pratel merging should occur without mixing them prazhidkostey forming a spherical surface section in the body due to the fact that they are completely and absolutely the smallest solid bodies. For two merged pratel clue to find possible interfaces pratel is an ancient Chinese symbol, a symbol of "yin-yang", which is a clear interpretation, as a section of a plane passing through the center of mass of fused pratel perpendicular to its axis of rotation. Followed small radius mark are areas in which there is the center of mass of each of the pratel. Moreover, the center of mass of each of the pratela is in the region of space occupied by another pratelom that there is two colors coloring mark. This arrangement of the center of mass is obtained for the curved surface formed a line that divides the sign into two equal parts, if that line is deformed and turns as you move along the axis of rotation. From the energy point of view, it should be noted that the substance pratel should be in the deepest potential well, because otherwise they could share their constituent parts. At the confluence of pratel depth of the potential well of the pratel relative to each other is less than the depth of the potential well of matter pratel as merged pratela can share their constituent pratela. Moreover, the depth of the potential well is reduced by increasing the amount fused pratel, thus limiting the number of simultaneously fused pratel. Unfortunately, the problem about the behavior of pratel is unusually complex and to its solution, apparently no proceeded. Therefore, the main question of the origin in a chaotic movement pratel some order remains open. But from the assumed properties of these pratel should idea of experimental observation of the emergence of order in the chaotic motion of bodies on the example of Brownian motion, in which solid Brownian particles (although in reality the Brownian particles, the particles are not, we will, as is customary in the future call them particles) are replaced by liquid at equal particle density and liquid solution. Naturally, a liquid should be immiscible. Under these conditions, a form of Brownian particles is spherical. If the solution is a single particle, its movement like the movement of a solid. When placed in a second solution of the same particles, each one of them will escape the inner surface of the other particles of random collisions with the molecules of the solution. This screening would lead to the fact that the number of strokes and thus the transmitted pulse inner and outer surfaces of the particles will vary. But then between the particles will be the force of gravity, under the influence of which the distance between the particles decreases. By decreasing the distance between the particles by multiple blows individual molecules resulting solution elastic reflections from the inner surfaces of the particles will increase and it is possible that at a certain distance therebetween by bumps and shocks transmitted pulse at these inner and outer surfaces will be identical. But then, these particles will move relative to each other in harmony. Imagine what could be the coordinated movement of large number of particles, based on qualitative representations, it is hardly possible. Unfortunately, the problem about the behavior of such particles is extraordinarily complex, and its solution are also apparently no proceeded. Moreover, the experimental observations are not so easy to carry out. Firstly, the screening will take place when the distance between particles is less than the mean free path of the molecules of the medium. At large distances, due to molecular collision protection in the space between the inner surfaces of the particle motion of medium molecules become chaotic same as in the space surrounding the particle. But then the mutual shielding the inner surfaces of the particles disappear. Second, the particle size should be smaller than the mean free path, but much larger than the molecules of the medium, since only under these conditions, the strength of which appears as a result of the screening, will exceed the fluctuating forces. Thirdly, the particle shape should be spherical. Only when this form of particles escaping their internal surfaces is not dependent on the relative positions of the particles, but depends on the solid angle at which the center of the particle is visible to another one. This solid angle is almost inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the particles. Note that in normal conditions the mean free path of gas molecules is on the order, and their size to the size of the resulting particles in a medium gases.

To produce such small spherical particles will likely fail. But these limitations lead to the idea of macro experiment, which aims to find out the existence of a force due to the mutual shielding of the inner surfaces of bodies in conjunction with gases. Gas at a pressure of ~ 10-3. mm Hg. Art.

The mean free path of the molecules reaches a centimeter. If this medium place the two bodies, for example, two flat plates at a distance less than a centimeter, if the force caused by the mutual shielding exists, it can be, to detect. Of course, to carry out this experiment is far from easy, since the magnitude of this force in these conditions is quite small, but the experimenters can measure much smaller forces, such as the Casimir force.

Thus, although only qualitatively, the physical vacuum is a space in which randomly move and collide pratela matter, and their appearance in the short-term movement of any order, and there is nothing like the virtual particles are also not observed by us. We observed the formation of elementary particles, especially those of the rest mass and which are coordinated movement pratel in the local region of space is possible only when the concentration of pratel in space. But then the physical field of elementary particles is nothing like the spread of the orderly movement of the local region of space to the whole space. Thus, the formation and movement due to particle concentration pratel their movement velocity distribution and the degree merge with one another, the concentration gradients in the degree and distribution of the merge. From the point of view of developing the basic concepts of physics concepts (mass, power, charge, and others) are macroscopic manifestations of the movement pratel matter. If these views are correct, then a low concentration pratel in the space to be observed and the lowest concentration of elementary particles. And such a low concentration of elementary particles observed in space. But then, putting the matter in conditions similar to space, that is, high vacuum and at a temperature close to absolute zero (), we need to observe the decay of elementary particles that make up matter, which should lead to an irreversible reduction in the mass of matter depending on length of stay substance in these conditions. When placed in these conditions radioactive substances, we should observe the acceleration of their decay. And the well-known effect of accelerating the decomposition of solid radioactive isotopes by the pressure used to measure high pressures (> 103 atm) [3] can be explained by changes in concentrations between pratelami moving in concert as part of the elementary particles of matter and pratel, among whom is the coordinated movement formed due to changes in the volume of material. Note that the relative change in the decay constant is almost proportional to the pressure. However, pressure and relative change in proportion to the amount that can be received and decreasing temperature.

Another experimentally observed effect must be the effect of changing the force of interaction of charged bodies, between which there is a space with a low concentration of pratel (at the pressure and temperature tending to zero).

In addition to these effects should occur and abnormal behavior of the photon flux (e.g., laser beam) passing them to an environment (vacuum ultra low temperature).

Unfortunately, the representation of the structure of matter are still qualitative in nature, but that the qualitative aspects of the physical laws necessary for the understanding of these laws. And that meant Maxwell, saying that we totally lose sight explains the phenomenon, and therefore can not come to a broader conception of their inner connection, though, and we can precalculate the consequences of these laws. [4]

In the experiment with Brownian particles shown that it is possible the coordinated movement of the two Brownian particles. Let us find out if there might have a coherent motion of two bodies consisting of the same number of fused pratel in which the mechanical characteristics: energy, momentum and angular momentum on the definitions of classical physics, equal to the corresponding characteristics of one of the elementary particles. It turns out that such a movement is and represents a uniform translational motion of the center of mass of bodies with simultaneous rotation about an axis passing through the center of inertia. If the translational velocity and linear velocity equal to the speed of light (c), and body mass points considered, the total mechanical characteristics of bodies are identical relevant characteristics of a photon. Thus the equivalent weight is half the equivalent tel photon mass determined from the formula for the photon energy and the frequency of rotation equal to the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation carried by a photon. In this model, the physical meaning clearer spin angular momentum of a photon as the axis of rotation.

where m - the equivalent of body weight; M-equivalent mass of the photon; c - the speed of light; r - the radius of rotation of the body; h-Planck constant - speed - the fine structure constant; e - electron charge.

However, the instantaneous speed of bodies exceeding the speed of light, at an average speed equal to the speed of light. That is not applicable to pratelam special theory of relativity, which from the point of view of developing concepts and describes the macroscopic theory is integral properties of objects.

From this model the photon follows that the maximum energy of the photon must be limited. Indeed, the photon energy is increased by increasing the equivalent weight by increasing the amount fused pratel, increasing speed, and reducing the distance between the bodies, which may only contact surfaces of bodies to each other. If you believe that touching surfaces of bodies occurs when the distance between the centers of inertia of bodies equal to the Planck length, the equivalent mass of the body is identical to the Planck mass, density of the body and energy of a photon of the same order as the corresponding Planck values, the number of simultaneously merged pratel be ~ 1042, and the radius of pratela will be ~ 10-47cm. Note that if the observed mass of our galaxy to gather in a completely solid body having the Planck density, its size is close to the size of a proton. This model is characterized by a photon as a particle, but the photon has both wave properties. And from the point of view of the proposed structure of matter, the photon can be represented as the spread of such coordinated motion of two bodies in the environment pratel Handoff from one body to others as it is the case in a wave motion.

Wednesday pratel to some extent similar to the environment of gases in our atmosphere, which directly random motion of gas molecules, we do not notice, and seeing only the different procedures in the movement of molecules in the form of sound waves, winds, eddies and tornadoes. Among gas molecules only elastic collisions, and the sizes of the molecules close to each other. Whereas in the medium may not pratel elastic collision, and dimensions of the bodies as a result of different amounts of fused pratel differ significantly. The velocities of the bodies in the medium pratel can significantly exceed the speed of light, similarly as the speed of the gas molecules exceeds the speed of sound, which corresponds to the average speed of gas molecules. But then the speed of light may be the average speed of bodies in the environment pratel. Elementary particles having a rest mass, are different vortex and vibrational motion of bodies consisting of various numbers of fused pratel in the local region of space, in an environment pratel, and outside of this environment can not exist. Unlike the vortices and tornadoes in the atmosphere without spherical symmetry, the vortices in the medium pratel have a spherical symmetry. Thus, the interaction of elementary particles must be regarded as the interaction of the vortices. Here there is a new classification of elementary particles.

Bosons are characterized by the fact that the coordinated movement (rotation oscillation) bodies in the local region of space environments pratel the Relay passed from one body to others, just as is the case for photons. This feature leads to the fact that in one and the same region of space can be multiple bosons. Sign of the charge bosons determined by the direction of rotation of bodies. In neutral bosons direction of rotation of bodies mutually compensated.

Fermions characterized in that the local region of space consistently move the same body. But then, in one and the, same place is not possible to find two identical fermions.

Unlike leptons from hadrons is that the speed of movement of bodies in the leptons close to the speed of light and the bodies forming the leptons are smaller than the body of the hadrons. This feature does not reveal the structure of the leptons. In addition hadrons like composite tornadoes may be composite, that is composed of a central vortex, along with its peripheral vortices.

And for the quantum numbers of a different order to hide coordinated motion of bodies in the environment pratel.

A special place in this classification is still rough, take the neutrino and antineutrino. These particles are mainly produced by the decay of some elementary particles and nuclear reactions. Since, the elementary particles having a rest mass, represented by various vortex structures, when their decay of the bodies could scatter in different directions, taking with them some of the energy, momentum and angular momentum of the vortex structure according to the laws of classical mechanics. That is, the neutrino and antineutrino are an ensemble of flying bodies, not a single particle. But then formed in the various processes of neutrinos and antineutrinos are not identical neutrinos and antineutrinos interact with matter. The interaction of these particles with matter can be considered as the interaction of an ensemble of bodies moving in a local region of space, with an ensemble of bodies, the incident at this ensemble in the environment pratel. At the same time need some simultaneity of impact of these ensembles for changing ensemble of bodies in a local region of space. But even in an environment of gases synchronous collision probability is small molecules, despite the fact that the average normal conditions, each molecule undergoes collisions ~ 109 sec. It follows an unusually low probability of interaction of neutrinos and antineutrinos with matter.

In conclusion, it must be said that the proposed hypothesis opens up broad prospects for further theoretical and experimental studies and in contrast to other hypotheses that can not be tested experimentally, leads to new physical effects. And that is, the experimental observation of these effects, or lack of compliance will answer true or not this hypothesis. Although these experiments did not spend just as create, let alone maintain the conditions for a time corresponding to the conditions distant space is difficult. However, the advances in modern technology allow you to create conditions similar to the conditions of deep space.

References

1. Newton I. Optics IB Cohen, Ed. NY, 1952 .394.

(Newton, IA or a treatise on optics, refraction, bending and

colors of light. Per. from English. SI Vavilov. Ed. 2nd. GITTL, Moscow, 1954, p.299).

2. Encyclopedia of Physics. Chap. Ed. AM Prokhorov, Moscow, 1992 (Neutrino Astrophysics, v.3, sec, 256).

3. D. Blanc Nuclei, Particles, nuclear reactors, Trans. Translated from French., Moscow, 1989, p.160.

4. Makskvell GK Selected essays on the theory of the electromagnetic field. Bell, London, 1954, p.12.


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