The most mysterious of these particles have a neutral charge and almost zero mass, rarely interacting with ordinary matter. Trillions of neutrinos per second easily pass through our bodies, buildings and land.
Their existence was first predicted by Wolfgang Pauli, who received the Nobel for his work Prize in 1945. This particle is a by-product of many nuclear reactions: fusion in the Sun, nuclear fission in a nuclear weapon or a nuclear power plant and natural radioactive decay inside the earth.
If they are so secretive, how do we know that they exist at all?
Although normally avoid contact neutrinos and matter, sometimes they bite into the atom whereby a signal allows to detect blocked.
What is unusual about the neutrino?
Most of the particles exist in two ways: in the first case, they are rotated clockwise, while in the second case - vs. Neutrino - the only particles that are found only in one version - all detected particles rotate counterclockwise. Some theorists argue that this may indicate the existence of other dimensions, which are "missing" neutrinos, rotating clockwise.
Missing neutrinos, rotating clockwise, can be dark matter. It is believed that it consists of up to 80 percent of all matter in the universe, and it does not give galaxies scatter in different directions. The idea is that neutrinos, rotating to the right side, could be much harder to rotate to the left, so can provide the necessary gravity.
And what I mean when I say that there are different types of neutrinos?
Another unusual property of neutrinos is that there are at least three types of particles - tau, the electron and the muon, thus, they can be converted from one form to another. Experiments have shown that there are differences in how to transform the neutrino and antineutrino, which may explain the discrepancy between the amount of matter and antimatter in the early universe.
In this particle has a practical application?
Some physicists say that neutrinos can be used to transmit information without wires, cables and satellites. ANTARES underwater neutrino detector in parallel is used as a telescope marine life. The fact that along with the neutrinos, it can detect light emitted from the luminescent organisms and bacteria.