Two Americans won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on how cells in our bodies perceive such signals as hormones, smells, tastes and light. Their work is crucial to the development of more effective drugs.
These signals are received by specialized proteins on the cell surface. Dr. Robert Lefkowitz and Brian filly made groundbreaking discoveries, mostly in the 1980s, the internal processes in these proteins.
These proteins are called receptors are G-protein. About half of all modern drugs act on these receptors, including beta-blockers and antigistominy. Experts say that this work and subsequent research, helping scientists to improve existing drugs and develop new ones.
These receptors receive signals from outside the cell and transmit the received message inside.
"They act as a gateway into the cell," - Lefkowitz said in a conference call with Stockholm. "As a result, they are crucial ... to regulate almost every known physiological processes of the body."
Filly, working with Lefkowitz, found the gene that contains information about how to create an adrenaline receptor. It soon became clear that there was a whole family of receptors, which resemble each other, and are called receptors coupled to G-protein.
To date, scientists have detailed knowledge of the operation and regulation of these receptors. These Nobel Prize winners "were at the forefront of this scientific journey," - said the Nobel committee.
USA dominated the field of the Nobel Prize in chemistry. U.S. scientists have received 17 of the 20 Nobel Prizes past years.
Robert Lefkowitz 69 years. He is married and has five children and five grandchildren.
Brian filly was born in 1955 in a small rural community in central Minnesota. His father and grandfather were bakers and his mother decorated cakes. Has two children.