Scientists at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, reported the discovery of the most massive distant cluster known at this time. It was called SPT-CLJ2106-5844 and its mass is 1.3 thousand trillion solar masses (a thousand times more massive Milky Way). Such gigantic dimensions, making it the most massive object in the distant Universe. Several other major facilities are located nearby, but they still have millions of years to collect matter.
Their discovery is based on the property of the baryon, which states that most of the ordinary matter of the cluster is contained not in the galaxies, and in the vast intergalactic spaces between them.
This intergalactic gas is very hot, and its atoms are ionized as a result of finding the matter in the cluster. The hot gas emits X-rays, as well as distort millimeter radiation when interacting with the cosmic microwave background radiation.
The researchers used a telescope to Antarctica, the height of 23 meters, a width of 10 meters and a weight of 280 tons, to investigate about 3% of the entire sky in the millimeter wave band in search of a sharp decline in brightness, which cause these clusters. This giant was easy enough to find, thanks to the information gathered in the millimeter range. X-ray images taken by the Chandra possible to determine the nature of the hot gas and the X-ray spectrum allowed us to determine its distance by its speed.
Sensitive optical and infrared equipment has confirmed its redshift: it is so far away that the light from it was in the way 7.5 billion years before it reached us. Of particular interest is the fact that if the current theory of the evolution of the universe is correct, then in such a young universe like ours, these clusters are very rare - it is possible that it is unique.