In the remote regions of the universe, a distance of almost 13 billion light-years from Earth, with strange galaxies. They are shrouded in mist and are at a great distance from us, so they could not see even the Hubble Space Telescope. It took use Spitzer Space Telescope to discover not one, but four extraordinary red galaxy. Although many astronomers were able to learn about them, but the question of what makes them so red, it remains an open question.
"We have experienced great difficulties when they tried to apply existing models to make an observation," - said Dzhiasheng Huang of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Huang is lead author of the publication, which reports on the discovery, published in the Astrophysical Journal.
The reason that Spitzer succeeded where Hubble failed, is that Spitzer is designed to observe the cosmos in infrared light, which is so beautiful, what lies beyond the visible spectrum. These galaxies shine 60 times brighter in the infrared than in the red spectrum that is accessible to the Hubble.
Galaxies can be very red for several reasons. They can be very dusty. They can contain a lot of old, red stars. Or they may be at a great distance, and expanding the universe of light expands in a long wavelength, which leads to color redness (a process known as red shift). In the case of data galaxies hold all three reasons.
All four galaxies are grouped together and somehow physically associated with each other. Because of their remoteness, we see them as they were only a billion years after the Big Bang - an era of galaxy formation.
"Hubble allowed to watch some of the first protogalaxies (clouds of gas at the stage of transformation into the galaxy.) In a sense, these galaxies might be a" bridge "of the evolution of galaxies," - said co-author Giovanni Fazio.
Scientists hope to make a precise calculation of redshift for these galaxies, which will require more powerful instruments such as The Large Millimeter Telescope or Atacama Large Millimeter Array. They also hope to find other instances that belong to this type of extremely red galaxies.
"Some evidence points to the existence of other such galaxies in other regions. We will analyze the data obtained by Spitzer and Hubble to find them," - said Fazio.