The male may follow a female in the half-light, capturing her scent. This fragrance attracts his attention. He begins to feel that it might be one of those in search of which he has spent his entire life. He follows her, trying to make an impression.
At this moment he is captivated by a haze of pheromones able to determine not only what the female - his companion, a potential partner for life, or someone who has subdued his mind. But what it is - a virgin.
Amorous male prairie voles - not only creature that uses this method to find a partner: brown lemmings, lizards, even beetles, spiders and bees are also used it with success.
Scientists are now trying to determine how important it can be smelled in the "care" of animals. Many males are able to learn by smell whether a female virgin, and if not, how many times she had previously mated with other males. These are the details of the research paper published this month in the journal Biological Reviews.
Male brown lemmings (Lemmus sibiricus), for example, prefer a greater extent by the smell of virgin females than those who had previously copulated. It seems that males use scent as a pointer, and the flavors of virgin females are significantly different from those that have had multiple partners because they produce very different chemicals.
Even the world of insects immune to the flavors in sexual activity. The female leaf miner (Agromyza frontella) held pairing, for example, expresses his status by producing lower levels of aromatic chemical called 3,7-dimethylnonadecane, more than females who did not know mate. Bees also females to mate earlier release chemicals that do not have virgin females.
There are few direct studies of the strange effects of odor rendered on sexual behavior. All they show is that the smell is critical to the successful reproduction of many species.
Animals secretly used to emphasize the effect of fragrances sexual status in three ways. First, after the meeting, female animals secrete a scent that repels other males. Second, females may cease to emit pheromones lure males after mating. This occurs in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), so pregnant female repels off of other loving males. Finally, males may apply chemicals when mating with females that will warn competitors of the subsequent pairing with "their" female.
When the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) mate, the male transfers a chemical 7-tricosene females. This - the only known example of transmitting pheromone floors simple physical contact. In other species, its transfer can be more intimate. Some moths and butterflies, for example, male pheromones stop shill behavior of females ready to mate.
In monogamous animals use pheromones to signal the status of the female is good for both sexes. This means that males will not waste time looking for females that may not be suitable for mating, while the female will not be disturbed several males at once.
In animals where the female can mate with many males, the detection of a virgin has obvious advantages, including the fact that his sperm will not compete with the sperm of its competitors.
For females, the benefits are less clear. Being marked as unacceptable partner of her best chances to find a pair of considerably limited. After mating, the females meal worms suffer from a significant downturn emission of pheromones, which are used to attract males. Levels rise again for every day that goes by, but they never again reach the levels of which are expressed in virgin females.
Some animals can using raznyuhivaniya learn more about the female and not only whether or not it is virgin. In love male meadow voles can determine how many of its partners darling copulate with her scent and smells of competing males.
Original: News Translation: M. Potter